A deductive argument is ‘truth tropic’-it leads us to true conclusions. Deductive arguments are ones where the premises entail the conclusion; as a result, it is logically impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion to be false. Thus deduction is truth preserving, if the premises are true, you can guarantee that the conclusion is also true. In this essay, all other forms of inferences that are non-deductive will be called inductive inferences. Consider the following argument: “all observed Emus are flightless, therefore, all Emus are Flightless.” Clearly this argument is not deductive since the truth of the premise does not necessarily entail the truth of the conclusion. In fact, it is entirely possible, though non likely, that the premise is true and the conclusion be proven false due to the existence of an unobserved Emu which is not flightless. However, it seems as thought this type of reasoning is plausible and even reliable if we ensure that the sample of observed Emus is sufficiently large and representative. Meaning that the Emus have been observed in a variety of locations over a long period of time. Thus induction is matter of “weighing evidence and judging probability not of proof”. It is clear that induction plays a crucial role in the advancement of scientific theories, however is it possible to justify inductive inferences and if so, how should we go about doing thi...
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...fend his theory against refutation. Should his theory been refuted? Furthermore, how can we identify a true falsifier as opposed to falsifiable falsifier? Since falsifiable falsifier can loom over theories for as long as decades, perhaps pseudoscientific theories such as Marxism and Freudianism are only temporarily unable to explain their falsifiers? The problem of the falsifiable falsifier poses some serious questions that could undermine Falsificationism.
To conclude, in this essay we briefly looked at the differences between induction and deduction. Then we examined Hume’s problem of induction along with two attempts at solving the problem of induction. Neither seemed to provide a clear solution. Then we questioned whether it was possible to live with Hume’s problem of induction by examining the theory of falsificationism, and the problems that lie in the theory.
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